At the same time, parents with different socio-economic status are also heterogeneous to a great extent in their behavior support for children. Besides, compared with urban students, the academic achievement of rural students is more dependent on their own learning behavior. The empirical analysis of these two paths contributes to the existing literature on family background and education for educators. At the national level, relevant departments shall strive for the success of every school providing compulsory education, improve school facilities, upgrade the quality of teachers, and achieve a balanced allocation of educational resources, thereby reducing the impact of school factors on children's academic performance.
Given the applicability of the data, there are still issues that need attention by future research.
This may be explained by the higher heterogeneity in family background and educational opportunities in urban areas compared to the rural counterpart. But this argument needs further data analysis and tests to confirm. We would like to thank the Institute of Social Science Survey at Peking University for collecting data for this study.
More studies are needed to establish firmly the construct validity of this questionnaire. The job was in the petroleum industry in Houston, Texas, for three years. Trust appears to be the sine qua non of effective mentoring relationships Sipe, , but it is not easily established between partners from different socioeconomic or ethnic groups. The first student's background knowledge is critical to success in school but not to successful public transit. The future of higher education and of higher education research. In our study, it was not possible to separate and measure the effects of educational background and selection. View larger version.
It is publicly available, and we were authorized to use CFPS for this study. ZQ contributed to the study conception and design. ZL participated in the analysis and interpretation of data. ZL prepared the manuscript. ZQ was responsible for the critical revisions of the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF.
Evidence from Contemporary China. Open Access. First Online: 02 October Introduction Education is the basic mechanism for enhancing the population quality of a nation, and education during childhood is the foundation for the formation of human labor-force quality. Through the organizing of existing literature, combined with the situation of education in China, the following analysis framework Fig. Open image in new window. Measurement Family SES is one of the key explanatory variables of this article.
In our sample, urban samples took Based on the analysis framework Fig. Model 1, model 2, model 3, model 4, and model 5 respectively control for the urban and rural areas, family socioeconomic status, and parental education participation scores. Among them, whether the children are on the tutorial class is analyzed with a binary logistic regression approach, and the rest outcomes are analyzed with multiple regression analysis.
Table 3 The effect of family SES on mediators. In the hypothetical model Fig. According to the results of goodness-of-fit tests with various subsamples, our hypothetical model fits the inherent structure of data quite well. Table 4 Goodness of fit tests of the structural equation model. The analysis shows that the factor loading of the measurement index is statistically significant, and the loading of most measurement indexes reaches 0. This shows that, overall, the indicators used in the analysis have a high degree of validity, and the latent variables are measured well. It should be noted that in the measurement model, the loading of three measurement indicators is less than 0.
The loading of parents requiring that their children finishing homework is also less than 0. Although the loading of the log of household per capita income is less than 0. Therefore, it is not a measurement that we focus on. Latent variable Measured variables Standardized factor loading Multiple correlation coefficient Baseline test Test Y1 word test score. Overall, the model specified in this paper explains 1.
Education participation School quality Educational services Learning behaviors Academic achievement Baseline test score Score ranking. In general, there are three differences in ways that family background influences the academic achievement of rural students and urban students. The socioeconomic status of the family explained Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Institute of Social Science Survey at Peking University for collecting data for this study.
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The most common way to measure the private returns to education, is to study how attainment improves individual labor market outcomes — usually by attempting to measure the effect of education on wages. Regarding social returns, the most common approach is to measure the effect of education on pro-social behaviour e. In each case, we provide a discussion of the robustness of the evidence.